Community Detection In R

1 Clique percolation

Clique percolation is a community detection method developed by Gergely Palla and his co-workers, see Palla, Gergely, Imre Derényi, Illés Farkas, and Tamás Vicsek. 2005. Uncovering the overlapping community structure of complex networks in nature and society. Nature 435(7043):814-8. Pubmed Arxiv.

This algorithm is not implemented in igraph, but here is a quick (and rather inefficient) version to do it: <- function(graph, k) {
   clq <- cliques(graph, min=k, max=k)
   edges <- c()
   for (i in seq_along(clq)) {
     for (j in seq_along(clq)) {
       if ( length(unique(c(clq[[i]], clq[[j]]))) == k+1 ) {
         edges <- c(edges, c(i,j)-1)
   clq.graph <- simplify(graph(edges))
   V(clq.graph)$name <- seq_len(vcount(clq.graph))
   comps <- decompose.graph(clq.graph)

   lapply(comps, function(x) {
     unique(unlist(clq[ V(x)$name ]))

2 Label propagation algorithm by Raghavan et al.

Usha Nandini Raghavan, Réka Albert and Soundar Kumara. 2007. Near linear time algorithm to detect community structures in large-scale networks, Phys. Rev. E 76, 036106 Arxiv

A quick implementation by Peter McMahan, he sent this to the igraph-help mailing list.

largeScaleCommunity <- function(g,mode="all"){
  V(g)$group <- as.character(V(g))
  thisOrder <- sample(vcount(g),vcount(g))-1
  t <- 0
  done <- FALSE
    t <- t+1
    done <- TRUE ## change to FALSE whenever a node changes groups              
    for(i in thisOrder){
      ## get the neighbor group frequencies:                                    
      groupFreq <- table(V(g)[neighbors(g,i,mode=mode)]$group)
      ## pick one of the most frequent:                                         
      newGroup <- sample(names(groupFreq) [groupFreq==max(groupFreq)],1)
      if(done){done <- newGroup==V(g)[i]$group}
      V(g)[i]$group <- newGroup
  ## now fix any distinct groups with same labels:                              
  for(i in unique(V(g)$group)){
    ## only bother for connected groups                                         
      theseNodes <- V(g)[group==i]
      theseClusters <- clusters(subgraph(g,theseNodes))
      ## iterate through the clusters and append their names                    
      for(j in unique(theseClusters$membership)){
        V(g)[theseNodes[theseClusters$membership==j]]$group <- paste(i,j,sep=".")

3 How to use the community detection algorithms?

3.1 Code

Gábor wrote this in the mailing-list.

memberships <- list()

ebc <-
mods <- sapply(0:ecount(G), function(i) {
 g2 <- delete.edges(G, ebc$removed.edges[seq(length=i)])
 cl <- clusters(g2)$membership
 modularity(G, cl)

g2 <- delete.edges(G, ebc$removed.edges[1:(which.max(mods)-1)])
memberships$`Edge betweenness` <- clusters(g2)$membership

fc <-
memb <-, fc$merges,
memberships$`Fast greedy` <- memb$membership

lec <-
memberships$`Leading eigenvector` <- lec$membership

sc <-, spins=10)
memberships$`Spinglass` <- sc$membership

wt <-, modularity=TRUE)
wmemb <-, wt$merges,
memberships$`Walktrap` <- wmemb$membership

memberships$`Label propagation` <-

3.2 Example

G <- graph.disjoint.union(graph.atlas(1000),graph.atlas(1001),graph.atlas(1002))
G <- add.edges(G,c(2,10,11,15,16,0))                                
G$layout <- layout.kamada.kawai                                    
V(G)$color <- rainbow(3)[memberships$'Edge betweenness'+1]                

4 Testing the significance of a community

The following code snippet performs a Wilcoxon rank-sum test on the "internal" and "external" degrees of a community in order to quantify its significance. Let us call the edges within a community "internal" and the edges connecting the vertices of a community with the rest of the graph "external". The null hypothesis of the test is that there is no difference between the number of "internal" and "external" edges incident to a vertex of the community. More internal than external edges show that the community is significant; less internal than external edges show that the community is in fact an "anti-community". The p-value of the test performed by this function will be close to zero in both cases; the value of the test statistic tells us whether we have a community or an anti-community.

community.significance.test <- function(graph, vs, ...) {
    if (is.directed(graph)) stop("This method requires an undirected graph")
    subgraph <- induced.subgraph(graph, vs)
    in.degrees <- degree(subgraph)
    out.degrees <- degree(graph, vs) - in.degrees
    wilcox.test(in.degrees, out.degrees, ...)
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